Bertha Jaques’ photograms

Bertha Jaques :: Photogram of a botanical specimen, 1900-1906. Cyanotype. | src MutualArt
Bertha Jaques :: Photogram of a botanical specimen, 1900-1906. Cyanotype. | src MutualArt
Bertha Evelyn Jaques :: Photogram of a botanical specimen, 1900-1906. Cyanotype. | src MutualArt
Bertha Jaques :: Photogram of a botanical specimen, 1900-1906. Cyanotype. | src MutualArt and Elizabeth Houston Gallery
Bertha Jaques :: Photogram of a botanical specimen, 1900-1906. Cyanotype. | src MutualArt and Elizabeth Houston Gallery
Bertha Jaques :: Photogram of a botanical specimen, 1900-1906. Cyanotype. | src MutualArt
Bertha Evelyn Jaques :: Photogram of a botanical specimen, 1900-1906. Cyanotype. | src MutualArt
Bertha Jaques :: Photogram of a botanical specimen, 1900-1906. Cyanotype. | src MutualArt and Elizabeth Houston Gallery
Bertha Jaques :: Photogram of a botanical specimen, 1900-1906. Cyanotype. | src MutualArt and Elizabeth Houston Gallery

Portrait by Flodin, 1920

Ferdinand Flodin :: ”Porträtt”. Titel saknas, 1920. Pigment print mounted on board. | src Moderna Museet
Ferdinand Flodin :: ”Porträtt”. Titel saknas, 1920. Pigment print mounted on board. | src Moderna Museet
Ferdinand Flodin :: ”Porträtt”. Titel saknas (Untitled), 1920. Pigment print mounted on board. | src Moderna Museet

Flower portrait by Włodek, 1920s

Jan Zdzisław Włodek :: Autochrome of a flower in the greenhouse of the Włodków villa at Pędzichów, 1923-1929. | Fundacja im. Zofii i Jana Włodków
Jan Zdzisław Włodek :: Autochrome of a flower in the greenhouse of the Włodków villa at Pędzichów, 1923-1929. | Fundacja im. Zofii i Jana Włodków
Detail of “Cieplarnia na Pędzichowie” by Jan Zdzisław Włodek (1923-1929). Autochrome.
Jan Zdzisław Włodek :: Autochrome of a flower in the greenhouse of the Włodków villa at Pędzichów, 1923-1929. | Fundacja im. Zofii i Jana Włodków
Jan Zdzisław Włodek :: Autochrome of a flower in the greenhouse of the Włodków villa at Pędzichów, 1923-1929. | Fundacja im. Zofii i Jana Włodków

A Lily and a Butterfly, 1905-1910

Eva Watson-Schütze (1867-1935) :: Woman with Lily [Jane McCall Whitehead], 1905. Truth beauty: pictorialism and the photograph as art, 1845-1945 (George Eastman House, 2009) | src Phillips Collection
Eva Watson-Schütze (1867-1935) :: Woman with Lily [Jane McCall Whitehead], 1905. Truth beauty: pictorialism and the photograph as art, 1845-1945 (George Eastman House, 2009) | src Phillips Collection

Photographic pictorialism, an international movement, a philosophy, and a style, developed toward the end of the 19th century. The introduction of the dry-plate process, in the late 1870s, and of the Kodak camera, in 1888, made taking photographs relatively easy, and photography became widely practiced. Pictorialist photographers set themselves apart from the ranks of new hobbyist photographers by demonstrating that photography was capable of far more than literal description of a subject. Through the efforts of pictorialist organizations, publications, and exhibitions, photography came to be recognized as an art form, and the idea of the print as a carefully hand-crafted, unique object equal to a painting gained acceptance.

The forerunners of pictorialism were early photographers like Henry Peach Robinson and Julia Margaret Cameron. Robinson found inspiration in genre painting; Cameron’s fuzzy portraits and allegories were inspired by literature. Like Robinson and Cameron, the pictorialists made photographs that were more like paintings and drawings than the work of commercial portraitists or hobbyists. Pictorialist images were heavily dependent on the craft of nuanced printing. Some photographers, like Frederick H. Evans, a master of the platinum print, presented their work like drawings or watercolors, decorating their mounts with ruled borders filled with watercolor wash, or printing on textured watercolor paper, like Austrian photographer Heinrich Kühn. Kühn achieved painterly effects by using an artist’s brush to manipulate watercolor pigment, instead of silver or platinum, mixed with light-sensitized gum arabic.

The idea that the primary purpose of photography was personal expression lay behind pictorialism’s “Secessionist” movement. Alfred Stieglitz’s “Photo-Secession” was the best-known secessionist group. Stieglitz and his magazine, Camera Work, with its high-quality photogravure illustrations, advocated for the acceptance of photography as a fine art.

Eva Watson Schütze (American, 1867-1935) :: Young girl seated on bench, ca. 1910. | src Phillips Collection
Eva Watson Schütze (American, 1867-1935) :: Young girl seated on bench, ca. 1910. George Eastman Coll. | src Phillips Collection

Early in the 20th century, pictorialism began losing ground to modernism: in 1911, Camera Work published drawings by Rodin and Picasso, and its final issue, in 1917, featured Paul Strand’s modernist photographs. Nevertheless, pictorialism lived on. A second wave of pictorialists included Clarence H. White, whose students included such photographers as Margaret Bourke-White, Paul Outerbridge, and Dorothy Lange. White’s colleague, Paul Anderson, continued the pictorial tradition until his death in 1956. Five prints of his Vine in Sunlight, 1944, display five different printing techniques, demonstrating how each process subtly shapes the viewer’s response to the image.

Exhibition organized by George Eastman House International Museum of Photography and Film, and Vancouver Art Gallery. [Quoted from source]

Study of tulips, ca. 1910

Hugh C. Knowles :: Study of tulips, ca. 1910. Autochrome. | src The Royal Photographic Society Collection at the V&A Museum
Hugh C. Knowles :: Study of tulips, ca. 1910. Autochrome. | src The Royal Photographic Society Collection at the V&A Museum
Hugh C. Knowles :: Study of tulips, ca. 1910. Autochrome. | src The Royal Photographic Society Collection at the V&A Museum
Hugh C. Knowles :: Study of tulips, ca. 1910. Autochrome. [original hi-res] | src V&A Museum
Hugh C. Knowles :: Study of tulips, ca. 1910. Autochrome. [original hi-res] | src V&A Museum

Plum Blossoms and Thistle, 1890s

Verlag Gerlach & Schenk (Austrian, founded 1882, dissolved 1901) :: 115 [Plum Blossoms] (Aprikosenblüte, Mandelblüte, Rosendornblüte), 1893-1897. Collotype. | src J. Paul Getty Museum
Verlag Gerlach & Schenk (Austrian, founded 1882, dissolved 1901) :: 115 [Plum Blossoms] (Aprikosenblüte, Mandelblüte, Rosendornblüte), 1893-1897. Collotype. | src J. Paul Getty Museum
Verlag Gerlach und Schenk :: 49. Füllungen aus Artischoken, um 1893. | src MK&G ~ Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe
Verlag Gerlach und Schenk :: 49. Füllungen aus Artischoken, um 1893. | src MK&G ~ Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe